The first documented mention of Norenberc was on 16 July 1050. Kaiserburg Castle was built on castle hill. Nuremberg experienced huge growth in the early modern era. Crafts and trade flourished here in the 15th and 16th centuries, as did science and the arts. This is where the artistic genius Albrecht Dürer had his workshop. The city's openness to new spiritual movements led to the start of the Reformation in 1525. In 1835 Germany's first locomotive – the 'Adler' – travelled from Nuremberg to Fürth. Pencil and toy production and the metalworking industry were also enjoying their heyday.
The Nazi Party exploited the rich heritage of the 'Treasure Chest of the German Reich' and held their rallies here from 1927 onwards. The city was reduced to rubble in January 1945. It was later rebuilt as a careful synthesis of old and new. Buildings such as Kaiserburg Castle, the churches of St. Lawrence and St. Sebaldus, the Church of Our Lady and the town hall were restored to their former glory.