The first reference to Jews in Bremen dates from 1199, but the Jewish community here only grew to significance in the 19th-century. Thirteen hundred Jews lived in Bremen in 1933; Kristallnacht was exceptionally cruel in Bremen, with five Jews murdered, all Jewish men deported to Sachsenhausen concentration camp and the synagogue destroyed. A new Bremen Jewish community was founded after the war; the new Bremen Synagogue opened in 1961.
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