Medieval records attest to Jews in the city in 1349, during the time of the Black Death. The first synagogue was opened in 1594. There were 1,152 Jews in Bochum in 1933, with an array of institutions and two synagogues. On Kristallnacht, 250 non-German Jews were expelled from the city and the main synagogue was blown up. By June 1939, 355 Jews remained in Bochum; they were later deported. Forty Holocaust survivors returned to Bochum in 1945 and the new Bochum Synagogue was consecrated in 1955.