Jews have lived in Freiburg since the mid- 13th century; they suffered imprisonment and murder during the Black Death, and a century of discrimination and expulsion. Jews officially returned to Freiburg in the early 17th century. There were 1,400 Jews in Freiburg in 1925. The synagogue was burned down on Kristallnacht and the town’s remaining 350 Jews were deported to Vichy France in 1940 and ultimately to Auschwitz. Fifteen survivors returned in 1945 and a new synagogue was established in 1953.