Speyer was a major center of rabbinical study from the 12th to 14th centuries. By 1939, most of the small community had emigrated, and the remainder was deported to concentration camps in 1940. The Mikve on Judenbadgasse is the best-preserved medieval Jewish ritual bath in Europe. The bath is in a beautiful garden, where a remnant of the 12th-century synagogue also stands. Opposite the houses on Jews Lane beginning at about number 9, much of the 11th-century ghetto wall still stands.